Banks spent many years supporting development of Zelle but only recently began a major push to integrate and promote it.
Amex has done what it does best: take tried and true banking product structures and add relevant messaging and a spin. This particular spin extends the appeal of the product to the un/under-banked, the target demographic, at a time when prepaid has become one of the fastest-growing products in the payments industry.
Dwolla bypassed many of the traditional channels and built something cheaper, faster and safer than anything that previously existed. This creates a huge channel and market pricing advantage for Dwolla. As ecommerce payment systems mature, it costs less to maintain and transfer money, and some of the early players in this space will have to reevaluate their business models to remain competitive.